Peripheral neuropathy, also known as peripheral nerve damage, is a condition in which the nerves in your feet, legs, hands, or arms lose their ability to transmit signals. It can cause numbness and tingling sensations that typically start just below the waist and work towards the toes and fingers.
Peripheral neuropathy is estimated to affect up to 83% of individuals with diabetes. It is a common complication among people who have had type 1 diabetes for over ten years. Diabetes is also the leading cause of non-traumatic amputations, and one in four diabetic individuals will lose a limb to amputation at some point in her life. Peripheral neuropathy is caused by damaged blood vessels and nerves, which may result from a lack of oxygen and nutrients and excess sugar levels in the blood. When your body cannot use glucose properly, it builds up in the blood, which can damage the brain, kidneys, eyes, and nerves.
2. Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmune diseases are caused by an immune system that attacks your own body. Some of these include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. Peripheral neuropathy can be a symptom of any of these diseases.
Peripheral neuropathy may also be a symptom of several other conditions, including polymyositis and dermatomyositis, autoimmune muscle and skin diseases. The foods you eat can contribute to the development of pernicious anemia, a form of chronic inflammation in the body that causes peripheral neuropathy.
Infections caused by the bacterium known as mycobacterium tuberculosis can cause an autoimmune response in your body, leading to peripheral neuropathy. The disease causes progressive muscle weakness, loss of touch, and pain sensation, and because the nerve damage is not explicitly located in one area of the body, it may present itself on your legs as well as in your arms.
Peripheral neuropathy also results from shingles that affect a part of your spinal cord and nerves, with symptoms including discomfort or pain in the facial area; leg pain that gets worse at night; or skin rash.
4. Inherited Disorders
Several inherited diseases cause peripheral neuropathy. Variant angiopathy and Moyamoya disease are rare inherited disorders that cause progressive peripheral nerve damage, leading to loss of circulation in the feet and legs. The condition is caused by problems with blood vessels in the brain, which might affect the area of your body above and below your navel.
You may also notice you feel numbness, tingling, and pain in a part of your leg when you exercise or walk on uneven surfaces. It is called causalgia, caused by compression of nerves that run along the spine and cause muscle spasms and pain.
Peripheral neuropathy is a condition that can affect any part of your body, causing numbness and tingling sensations. The cause of peripheral neuropathy depends on the area of the body experiencing symptoms and on the course of the disorder. It is essential to see your doctor for more information about your condition and discuss treatment. Do not attempt self-treatment until you have talked to your doctor and have received appropriate advice.